¿Influye la microbiota en el riesgo de obesidad infantil?

Rita Cristina Sanches Oliveira, Pedro Miguel Barata de Silva Coelho, María del Carmen Lozano Estevan

Resumen


La obesidad infantil se asocia con el incremento del riesgo de desarrollar futuras enfermedades como la diabetes, las enfermedades cardiovasculares o el cáncer. Varios factores afectan la ganancia de peso infantil, como la genética, el estilo de vida materno y otros factores ambientales. El período perinatal es considerado como el más importante a la hora de definir la programación metabólica del futuro adulto. Varias investigaciones previas han discutido el rol que podría tener la microbiota intestinal en el riesgo de obesidad y su desarrollo entre los 3 y 5 años. Una vez más, el período perinatal es crucial para definir la cantidad y la diversidad de una microbiota intestinal saludable. La dieta materna, el tipo de parto, la exposición a los antibióticos y la lactancia materna son algunos de los procesos que determinarán una microbiota intestinal favorable. Las funciones de la microbiota intestinal, principalmente mediante la producción de ácidos grasos de cadena corta como metabolitos, incluyen la regulación del metabolismo y el sistema inmunológico del huésped, que pueden estar comprometidos en caso de disbiosis. Esta revisión pretende evaluar el estado del arte en relación con la obesidad infantil y el papel de la microbiota intestinal. A pesar de la gran cantidad de publicaciones científicas, todavía hace falta aclarar los mecanismos y la posible terapia para la obesidad infantil.

Palabras clave


Obesidad; Microbioma Gastrointestinal; Obesidad Pediátrica; Lactancia Materna; Disbiosis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.22.2.389

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