Programas de intervención a través de Internet para la reducción de peso en adultos con sobrepeso y obesidad: una revisión sistemática

Edith Ernestina Mata-González, Cecilia Meza-Peña, Carmina Saldaña García

Resumen


Introducción: el auge de la tecnología ha posibilitado el desarrollo de programas vía Internet para abordar el problema de la obesidad, como apoyo complementario a programas presenciales. El presente estudio evalúa la evidencia sobre programas vía Internet realizados en personas adultas con sobrepeso y  obesidad, analizando los recursos y componentes principales de las intervenciones.
Material y métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática en las bases de datos Web of Science y Scopus. Se seleccionaron estudios de intervención en línea para la reducción de peso en población adulta. Bajo los lineamientos PRISMA, se analizó la información extrayendo datos de autoría, año de publicación, diseño del estudio, duración de la intervención, variables para evaluar la eficacia y resultados.
Resultados: Se analizaron 21 artículos, mismos que reportan diferencias significativas en peso  tras intervención en línea contrastados con modalidades presenciales o grupos control. Los programas enfatizan cambios en dieta, incremento de actividad física, auto monitoreo, fijación de metas y disponibilidad de redes sociales como variables que garantizan eficacia. La retroalimentación por parte de profesionales y las redes de apoyo parecen ser cruciales para la adherencia y el logro de reducciones de peso significativas.
Conclusiones: El aprovechamiento de la tecnología puede ser un aliado que lleve a cambios significativos en el peso de personas que viven con sobrepeso u obesidad.


Palabras clave


Adulto; Obesidad; Intervención basada en la Internet; Pérdida de peso

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.24.4.984

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Copyright (c) 2020 Edith Ernestina Mata-González, Cecilia Meza-Peña, Carmina Saldaña García

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ISSN (online): 2174-5145 / ISSN (print): 2173-1292

Abreviatura: Rev Esp Nutr Hum Diet

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