Actualización clínica del síndrome metabólico

Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho, Miguel Hernández-Camacho

Resumen


El síndrome metabólico ha sido identificado como un problema global debido a que afecta a una gran cantidad de personas. Numerosos factores están involucrados en su aparición y desarrollo. Se ha descrito que el síndrome metabólico tiene consecuencias negativas en la salud. Consecuentemente, numerosos tratamientos han sido propuestos para paliar el síndrome metabólico como fármacos, cirugías o cambios en el estilo de vida donde los hábitos nutricionales serían un importante elemento en el control del síndrome metabólico. El presente estudio revisa la literatura existente sobre la epidemiología del síndrome metabólico, los componentes involucrados en su aparición y progresión, las consecuencias clínicas del mismo y las estrategias nutricionales utilizadas en su remisión. Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed y Medline con objeto de identificar estudios elegibles. Se obtuvo que el síndrome metabólico está presente en población tanto de países desarrollados como de países en vías de desarrollo. Factores medioambientales y genéticos están involucrados en su desarrollo. Su padecimiento incrementa de forma exponencial el riesgo de padecer enfermedad cardiovascular, determinados tipos de cánceres, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, anomalías del sueño, etc. Las estrategias nutricionales jugarían un papel esencial en la prevención, tratamiento y recuperación del síndrome metabólico.


Palabras clave


Síndrome Metabólico; Obesidad; Prevalencia; Hiperglucemia; Inflamación; Dieta; Enfermedades Cardiovasculares.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.21.4.392

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Copyright (c) 2017 Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

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Abreviatura: Rev Esp Nutr Hum Diet

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