Cafeína en la infancia: efectos fisiológicos y cognitivos: Revisión sistemática de la literatura

Yeyetzi Citlali Torres-Ugalde, Angélica Romero-Palencia, Alma Delia Román-Gutiérrez

Resumen


Introducción: La cafeína es el psicoestimulante más consumido en el mundo. Su uso entre los niños es controvertido, aunque produce un aumento en la actividad cerebral, podría obstaculizar el crecimiento y el desarrollo en los consumidores jóvenes. El objetivo de esta revisión fue identificar cuáles son los efectos físicos y cognitivos del consumo de cafeína por niños.
Materiales y métodos: Los detalles del protocolo para esta revisión sistemática se registraron en PROSPERO y se puede acceder a ellos en www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRDXXXXXXXXXXX. Los motores de búsqueda utilizados, fueron EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Pub Med y Clarivate analytics. Los criterios de elegibilidad fueron sujetos menores de 12 años con ingesta o administración de cafeína que manifestaran cambios físicos o cognitivos.
Resultados: Inicialmente, se encontraron 5.453 artículos, de los que se seleccionaron 20 estudios experimentales u observacionales (transversales y longitudinales) para esta revisión, siguiendo la metodología PRISMA.
Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el consumo de cafeína en esta población, puede provocar alteraciones en el crecimiento, al producir alteraciones en el ciclo del sueño, debido a que interfiere con la secreción de la hormona del crecimiento. Por otro lado, el rendimiento cognitivo fue mejor en niños con historial de uso de citrato de cafeína en casos de apnea del prematuro. Para las alteraciones paidopsiquiátricas, se encontró evidencia de que la caféína produce una mejor distribución de la energía cerebral, aunque puede exacerbar la sintomatología en el TDAH y el autismo. 


Palabras clave


Cafeína; Niño; Preescolar; Lactante; Crecimiento y Desarrollo; Medición de Riesgo

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.24.4.1041

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Copyright (c) 2020 Yeyetzi Citlali Torres-Ugalde, Angélica Romero-Palencia, Alma Delia Román-Gutiérrez

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Abreviatura: Rev Esp Nutr Hum Diet

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